A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption but to surrounding distance locations depending on the magnitude and power of the rushing flow of lava.


The earth crust, or surface, is divided into enormous pieces called PLATES. These plates are always moving very slowly. When plates move apart in areas where is very hot, this might cause molten rocks to flow out from vents, causing a volcano. Molten of fluid rocks that flows out of a volcano (or during volcanic)  is called LAVA. When plates bumps and/or scrape against one another in areas saturated with very high temperatures, this causes explosions, eruptions, excretion and formation. The eruption and excretion of molten lava is then known as EARTHQUAKES.

These melted rocks called LAVA forms MAGMA when expose to air. The magma within  the large solid mantles sometimes rises and are collects in certain places. Volcanoes occurs when lava explodes, erupt and rises to the Earth’s surface. At this stage magma becomes known as lava.

Eruption occurs when a volcano become active and eject lava, ash, and gases. More on chracteristics of a volcanic mountain.

Super Volcanoes are formed from huge collapsed craters, called CALDERAS with a magma chamber beneath. Only a few Super Volcanoes have been recorded in existence. They are supposed to be very powerful and destructive that a single eruption could alter all life on earth. These magma chamber are built up of enormous pressure over thousands of years.

Scientists think that the last Super Volcano eruption was in Sumatra, 74,000 years ago. It is believe that, that eruption blew out enough ash to block the Sun’s light for around six months, causing the earth to cool down. This would have caused environmental changes all over the world, affecting living organisms.


In March 2011, a 9.0-earthquake struck Japan, triggering a devastating tsunami and subsequent radiation crisis. International Medical Corps was on-the-ground within 24 hours of the disaster, assessing needs and coordinating with the Japanese government to deliver medications and medical equipment, provide hot meals to families in temporary shelters, restore communications to allow emergency responders to process key information, and provide psychosocial and mental health support to individuals and organizations. As the focus in Japan turns from relief to recovery, International Medical Corps continues to partner with local and international Japanese organizations to respond to longer-term needs of underserved communities affected by the disaster.

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